BIOINFORMATICS is an interdisciplinary field mainly involving molecular biology and genetics, computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Data intensive, large-scale biological problems are addressed from a computational point of view. The most common problems are modeling biological processes at the molecular level and making inferences from collected data. A bioinformatics solution usually involves the following steps: Collect statistics from biological data. Build a computational model. Solve a computational modeling problem. Test and evaluate a computational algorithm. This chapter gives a brief introduction to bioinformatics by first providing an introduction to biological terminology and then discussing some classical bioinformatics problems organized by the types of data sources. Sequence analysis is the analysis of DNA and protein sequences for clues regarding function and includes subproblems such as identification of homologs, multiple sequence alignment, searching sequence patterns, and evolutionary analyses. Protein structures are three-dimensional data and the associated problems are structure prediction (secondary and tertiary), analysis of protein structures for clues regarding function, and structural alignment. Gene expression data is usually represented as matrices and analysis of microarray data mostly involves statistics analysis, classification, and clustering approaches. Biological networks such as gene regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, and protein-protein interaction networks are usually modeled as graphs and graph theoretic approaches are used to solve associated problems such as construction and analysis of large-scale networks.

The mission of the NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics & Life Sciences is to study the mechanistic processes involved in human disease with the goal of developing diagnostics tools and therapeutic interventions, preventative treatment and other disease management devices and processes to improve the health and well-being of the population. This scientific mission is balanced by our responsibility to act as a facilitator of economic development in Upstate New York via partnerships with government, academia and industry.
The Buffalo COE includes one of fifteen NYSTAR Centers for Advanced Technology. The University at Buffalo (UB) CAT focuses on biomedical and bioengineering translational research for development of useful products with commercial potential. By accelerating science transfer, the UB CAT will help foster the creation of new biotech start-up companies and help existing biomedical businesses expand through new or improved product lines.

The Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB) is a non-profit autonomous institute set up by the Department of IT, BT and S&T, Government of Karnataka. It is located in a 20-acre campus in the southern part of the City of Bengaluru and is a part of Biotech Park. Its mission is to help grow the biotech industry and, to fulfill this mission, it has adopted the strategies of education, research and promoting entrepreneurship.

The Institute of Bioinformatics is a not-for-profit organization engaged in research in Bioinformatics. This institute is located in Bangalore, India and was established in May 2002. Bangalore is a prime center for research and development and is the hub of information technology in India. The Institute of Bioinformatics emphasizes cutting edge research in Databases, Computational Genomics, Proteomics and Comparative Genomics. The initial goal of this Institute was to create a freely available Human Protein Reference Database using open source technologies and to experimentally verify predicted human genes using molecular biology and proteomics-based methods.

The Centre for Bioinformatics in Pondicherry University was started as Sub Distributed Information Centre of the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India (DBT) in 1991. The mandate of the Centre is to train manpower and conduct research in various areas of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Recognizing the progress made by the Centre, DBT upgraded the Centre to a full Centre level in 2002 and several new positions were sanctioned and additional funding was allocated.
The Centre is identified as a Centre of Excellence for Research and Training in the field of Bioinformatics by the Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi from 2007 to 2013 and awarded a special grant of ` 3.69 crores. The Centre has taken up several research projects and has offered modular courses in Bioinformatics under this Grant.